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Portuguese foreign policy became tied to Spanish hostility to England.
Bridge: An individual whose weak ties fill a structural hole, providing the only link between two individuals or clusters.
According to the census of 2011 it is the smallest of all in terms of geography (apart from London), covering an area of 3,317 square miles and the second smallest in terms of population with 2,597,000 residing here, but it’s our belief that is one of the prettiest and most worth visiting.
The region covers the counties of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, County Durham, Teesside and part of North Yorkshire, with Durham, Newcastle and Sunderland being the cities.
Portugal aided England (and later the UK) in times of need, for example, in the First World War.
Today, Portugal and the United Kingdom are both part of NATO, a larger intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states that accounts for over 70% of total global military spending.
English aid to the House of Aviz (which ruled Portugal from 1385 to 1580) set the stage for Portuguese cooperation with England that would become a cornerstone of Portugal's foreign policy for more than five hundred years.
However, English aid to Portugal went back much further to the 1147 Siege of Lisbon, when English and other northern European crusaders – en route to the Holy Land to participate in the Second Crusade – stopped and helped Portuguese King Afonso Henriques to conquer the city from the Moors.Bartholdi (pictured at left in 1985m 22c commemorating his work) continued to work on other projects.The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.Philippa brought to the court the Anglo-Norman tradition of an aristocratic upbringing and gave her children good educations.Her personal qualities were of the highest standard, and she reformed the court and imposed rigid standards of moral behaviour.Structural holes: The absence of ties between two parts of a network.(Laboulaye referred to the United States and France as “Two Sisters,” each with a love of liberty.