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Biochemical proof of the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 was then obtained using a fluorescently labeled caspase-3/7 substrate (Fig.1) Nuclei labeled in vivo with PI (red) within the myenteric ganglia of a Ch AT-cre: YFP adult mouse, where cholinergic neurons are labeled with YFP (yellow), represent neurons with leaky cell membranes indicating apoptotic cells (dark-blue arrow).

In this study, we have resolved these controversies by successfully identifying the ENPC capable of rapid neurogenesis in vivo to keep up with what we show to be a high rate of ongoing neuronal apoptosis in the adult small intestine.

On imaging the myenteric plexus of these mice when stained with antibodies against macrophages, we observed that cell bodies of td Tomato-expressing cholinergic neurons were engulfed by muscularis macrophages in both the small intestine and the colon (Fig. -stack of confocal microscopy images of neurons within the small intestinal myenteric ganglia shows the colocalization of Ch AT-cre:td Tomato (red) signal along with that of CD11b-stained (green) muscularis macrophages.

) Two-photon microscopy of myenteric plexus from the colon of a Ch AT-cre:td Tomato mouse shows td Tomato-expressing (red) cholinergic neurons along with MHC class II-labeled muscularis macrophages (green) shows an abundance of macrophages associated with the myenteric plexus.

We determined if enteric neurons are dying at a significant rate in healthy adults, thus establishing the need for replacement by neurogenesis.

First, we stained adult murine myenteric ganglia with a cleaved caspase-3–specific antibody that has previously been shown to mark neurons from the central and ENS that are fated for apoptosis (25, 26).

() Nuclei labeled in vivo with PI (red) within the myenteric ganglia of a Ch AT-cre: YFP adult mouse, where cholinergic neurons are labeled with YFP (yellow), represent neurons with leaky cell membranes indicating apoptotic cells (dark-blue arrow).

(-stack image of a myenteric ganglia from Ch AT-cre: YFP adult mouse, where YFP (yellow) is expressed by myenteric cholinergic neurons and, hence, labels the myenteric ganglia, that was given PI in vivo before killing, and shows the presence of a YFP) Image from the myenteric plexus layer of the Ch AT-cre: YFP animal (labeled in vivo with PI as above) after the tissue was fixed (which caused a loss of YFP signal along with an expected significant reduction of PI staining intensity) (31), and stained with antisera against pan-neuronal marker Hu C/D showing () Two-photon microscopy of myenteric plexus from the colon of a Ch AT-cre:td Tomato mouse shows td Tomato-expressing (red) cholinergic neurons along with MHC-II–labeled muscularis macrophages (green) shows an abundance of macrophages associated with the myenteric plexus.Here, we confirm that despite ongoing neuronal cell loss because of apoptosis in the myenteric ganglia of the adult small intestine, total myenteric neuronal numbers remain constant.This observed neuronal homeostasis is maintained by new neurons formed in vivo from dividing precursor cells that are located within myenteric ganglia and express both Nestin and p75NTR, but not the pan-glial marker Sox10.As an example, it is possible that acquired diseases of the enteric nervous system, such as achalasia, may result from a loss of ENPC, analogous to congenital disorders, such as Hirschsprung’s.The ability to identify the adult ENPC will therefore enable a new understanding of the pathogenesis of enteric neuromuscular diseases as well as the development of novel regenerative therapies.) Mean ± SE of percentage of macrophages across small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) that contain td Tomato-inclusions compared with WT controls, suggesting that the robust phagocytosis of neuronal debris is similar across the length of the gut.:td Tomato progeny were administered tamoxifen (for 4 consecutive days) when adults. On the other hand, nearly a third (∼31%) of preexisting NOS1 neurons labeled with td Tomato were lost at day 7 (Fig.

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